High Income

Belt and Road Initiative Trade Costs Database

This paper studies the impact of transport infrastructure projects of the Belt and Road Initiative on shipment times and trade costs. Based on a new data on completed and planned Belt and Road transport projects, Geographic Information System analysis is used to estimate shipment times before and after the Belt and Road Initiative. Two sets of data are computed to address different research questions: a global database based on an analysis of 1,000 cities in 191 countries and 47 sectors and a regional database that focuses on more granular information (1,818 cities) for Belt and Road...


Human Capital Index

The Human Capital Index (HCI) database provides data at the country level for each of the components of the Human Capital Index as well as for the overall index, disaggregated by gender. The index measures the amount of human capital that a child born today can expect to attain by age 18, given the risks of poor health and poor education that prevail in the country where she lives. It is designed to highlight how improvements in current health and education outcomes shape the productivity of the next generation of workers, assuming that children born today experience over the next 18 years...

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Efficiency of Public Spending in Education, Health, and Infrastructure

Governments of developing countries typically spend between 20 and 30 percent of gross domestic product. Hence, small changes in the efficiency of public spending could have a major impact on aggregate productivity growth and gross domestic product levels. Therefore, measuring efficiency and comparing input-output combinations of different decision-making units becomes a central challenge. This paper gauges efficiency as the distance between observed input-output combinations and an efficiency frontier estimated by means of the Free Disposal Hull and Data Envelopment Analysis techniques....

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Future of Business Survey - Aggregated Data

The Future of Business survey is a collaboration between Facebook, the OECD and the World Bank to provide timely insights on the perceptions, challenges, and outlook of online Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The Future of Business survey was first launched as a monthly survey in 17 countries in February 2016 and expanded to include 42 countries in 2018. In early 2019 the Future of Business will expand to additional countries and move to a bi-annual cadence.

The target population consists of SMEs that have an active Facebook business Page and include both newer and longer-...

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Procuring Infrastructure - Public-Private Partnership

Procuring Infrastructure PPPs: Adherence to Best Regulatory Practices is a collection of comparable and actionable data on the procurement of large-scale public-private partnership (PPP) infrastructure projects around the world. The assessments of countries’ regulatory practices are organized in four thematic areas: preparation, procurement, contract management, and a special module on unsolicited proposals (USP).

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Atlas of the Sustainable Development Goals 2018: From the World Development Indicators

The dataset includes raw data, as well as analytical and chart-formatting code (primarily in R) used to produce the 145 figures in the Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2018. A majority of the figures are based on data from the World Development Indicators (around 100 figures), while nearly the entire remainder use other open datasets which are included in this entry to ensure reproducibility. Four figures use data which we are unable to share for commercial reasons.

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Economic Fitness

Economic Fitness (EF) is both a measure of a country’s diversification and ability to produce complex goods on a globally competitive basis. Countries with the highest levels of EF have capabilities to produce a diverse portfolio of products, ability to upgrade into ever-increasing complex goods, tend to have more predictable long-term growth, and to attain good competitive position relative to other countries. Countries with low EF levels tend to suffer from poverty, low capabilities, less predictable growth, low value-addition, and trouble upgrading and diversifying faster than other...

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Health Equity and Financial Protection

This dataset contains information on health service coverage, health outcomes and financial protection from excess out-of-pocked medical spending at country level.

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Uruguay BOOST public expenditure database

The Open Budgets Portal is the first effort to create a one-stop shop for budget data worldwide with the hope of bringing visibility to countries’ efforts in this field, facilitating access and promoting use of spending data, and motivating other countries into action. The purpose of the BOOST project is to enhance the transparency and efficiency of public spending across the globe by improving access to government expenditure data and linking spending to relevant results. The BOOST team has collected and processed detailed government expenditure data from more than a dozen countries,...

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Public Goods and Ethnic Divisions

Abstract of Paper
We present a model that links heterogeneity of preferences across ethnic groups in a city to the amount and type of public good the city supplies. We test the implications of the model with three related datasets: US cities, US metropolitan areas, and US urban counties.

Results show that productive public goods -- education, roads, libraries, sewers and trash pickup -- in US cities (metro areas/urban counties) are inversely related to the city's (metro area's/county's) ethnic fragmentation, even after controlling for other socioeconomic and...


A gendered assessment of the brain drain

This paper updates and extends the Docquier-Marfouk data set on inter-national migration by educational attainment. The authors use new sources, homogenize definitions of what a migrant is, and compute gender-disaggregated indicators of the brain drain. Emigration stocks and rates are provided by level of schooling and gender for 195 source countries in 1990 and 2000. The data set can be used to capture the recent trend in women's skilled migration and to analyze its causes and consequences for developing countries. The .findings show that women represent an increasing share of the OECD...

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Services in the trans-pacific partnership : what would be lost?

As the fate of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) hangs in balance, an evaluation of what it offers could inform current decisions and shape future negotiations. The TPPs services component has been hailed as one of the agreement's major accomplishments. To assess the agreement's impact on national policy in the major services sectors, we created a new public database. This database reveals that TPP commitments seldom go beyond countries' applied policies, suggesting the explicit liberalization resulting from the agreement is limited only to a few countries and a few areas. However, the...


WTO Trade Flows and Trade Disputes

The database from Bown and Reynolds (2014, "Trade Flows and Trade Disputes") maps information on the policies that triggered WTO dispute settlement actions between 1995 and 2011 to highly disaggregated, product-level trade data so as to potentially learn from more precise measures of market access. This mapping includes three important elements i) information on the timing of the respondent’s policy change which triggered the dispute; ii) information on the different types of WTO-violating policies imposed, particularly whether they are ‘global’ policies (imposed against all trading...

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China Pollution Intensities

The dataset provides water pollution intensities for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS); air pollution intensities for dust, smoke and sulphur dioxide (SO2). The units of measurement for value of output are kilograms per 1000/RMB Yuan. The pollution intensities are at the 2-,3-, and 4-digit ISIC level.

These industrial pollution intensities have been produced by the "Economics of Industrial Pollution Control" team of DECRG in the World Bank using the China Environment Yearbooks for 1992, 1994, and 1996. These yearbooks were produced by China’s State...


International Comparison Program 2011

A set of comparable international price and volume measures of gross domestic products (GDP) and expenditure aggregates for 199 countries that participated in the 2011 round of International Comparison Program (ICP) and estimates for 15 non-participating countries. The data covers 26 expenditures categories for goods and services, and several indicators including purchasing power parities (PPPs), expenditure shares of GDP, total and per capita expenditures in US dollar both in exchange rate terms and PPP terms, and price level Indices. For further information see...

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Crowdsourced Price Data Collection Pilot

Crowdsourced price data from 15 pilot countries, namely, Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Cambodia, Colombia, Ghana, Indonesia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, Venezuela and Vietnam; from December 2015 to August 2016 and covering 162 household good and service items.

This database is a repository of information collected during a World Bank pilot study on the feasibility of crowdsourced price data collection utilizing modern information and communication technologies. The collected data can be used for a variety of spatial and temporal price studies and other...

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Universal Health Coverage Global Monitoring Data

This dataset contains the underlying data used to produce the 2017 joint WB-WHO global monitoring report in universal health coverage - "Tracking universal health coverage: 2017 global monitoring report".

The dataset has information on service coverage and on financial protection indicators at country, regional and global level.

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Cities in Europe and Central Asia : A Shifting Story of Urban Growth and Decline Database

This research, designed by the World Bank, and supported by the Department for International Development (DFID), aims to highlight the unprecedented transformation of the urban systems in the ECA region in the last decades, and to look at this shifts from the demographic, economic, and spatial prospectives.

Cities in ECA database comprises data from 5,549 cities in 15 countries of the Eastern Europe and Central Asia region, as defined by the World Bank Group, and from the United Kingdom and Germany. Database information for each city is in three dimensions: demographic, spatial, and...


Data Resources for Structural Economic Analysis

Collection of over 60 comprehensive international databases on the structure of the global economy, and standardized metadata for each, covering both technical characteristics of the data and detailed access information. Areas represented in the collection include output and value added by industrial sector, labor force, social and demographic data, productivity, and measures of economic endowments.

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Services Trade Restrictions Database

The World Bank’s Services Trade Restrictions Database aims to facilitate dialogue about, and analysis of, services trade policies. The database provides comparable information on services trade policy measures for 103 countries, five sectors (telecommunications, finance, transportation, retail and professional services) and key modes of delivery.

Compared to the vast empirical literature on policies affecting trade in goods, the empirical analysis of services trade policy is still in its infancy. One major constraint has been inadequate data on policies affecting services trade. Our...

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Global Database of Shared Prosperity

The World Bank Group’s goal of promoting shared prosperity has been defined as fostering income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the welfare distribution in every country, and is measured by annualized growth in average real per capita consumption or income of the bottom 40 per cent. At the outset, other details for constructing this indicator were left for countries to decide, resulting in a lack of comparability between countries if they chose different time-periods or databases when making their estimates.

In response to the rising demand for cross-country comparisons, the...

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Women, Business and the Law

Women, Business and the Law (WBL) is a World Bank Group project collecting unique data on the laws and regulations that restrict women's economic opportunities. Since 2009, WBL has enhanced the study of gender equality and informed discussions on improving women's prosperity. WBL 2018 is the fifth in a series of biennial reports measuring gender differences in seven main topics: accessing institutions, using property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, going to court, building credit and protecting women from violence.

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Global Distribution of Economic Activity

Data for replicating The Global Spatial Distribution of Economic Activity: Nature, History, and the Role of Trade (forthcoming 2018; with Vernon Henderson, Tim Squires and David N. Weil) Quarterly Journal of Economics

We explore the role of natural characteristics in determining the worldwide spatial distribution of economic activity, as proxied by lights at night, observed across 240,000 grid cells. A parsimonious set of 24 physical geography attributes explains 47% of worldwide variation and 35% of within-country variation in lights. We divide geographic characteristics into two...


Trade Facilitation Indicators: Hard and Soft Infrastructure

The database contains four new indicators related to trade facilitation covering 112 countries over the 2004-2007. The indicators are scaled on a range of 0 (lowest performer) to 1 (top performer) and are obtained using factor analysis using 20 indicators of different sources: Doing Business, World Economic Forum, World Development Indicators and Transparency International. They are grouped along two dimensions: Hard infrastructure: Physical infrastructure measures the level of development and quality of ports, airports, roads, and rail infrastructure. Information and communications...

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