Malawi - Fourth Integrated Household Survey 2016-2017

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The Integrated Household Survey is one of the primary instruments implemented by the Government of Malawi through the National Statistical Office (NSO) roughly every 5 years to monitor and evaluate the changing conditions of Malawian households. The IHS data have, among other insights, provided benchmark poverty and vulnerability indicators to foster evidence-based policy formulation and monitor the progress of meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the goals listed as part of the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS) and now the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Type: 
Microdata
Acronym: 
IHS4 2016/17
Languages Supported: 
English
Topics: 
Topic not specified
Geographical Coverage: 
Malawi
Economy Coverage: 
Economy Coverage not specified
Release Date: 
November 29, 2017

Last Updated

Last Updated: 
January 13, 2021

Harvest System ID

Harvest System ID: 
Microdata

Harvest Source ID

Harvest Source ID: 
9663
Disclaimer: 
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Version Description: 
Version 03
Version Production Date: 
Wednesday, January 13, 2021
Version Notes: 
Identical to v02 with updates to AG_MOD_D.dta, AG_MOD_J.dta, AG_MOD_K.dta and AG_MOD_M.dta
Publisher Name: 

Development Economics Data Group; The World Bank Group

Funding Name, Abbreviation, Role: 
Government of Malawi, World Bank Living Standards Measurement Study – Integrated Surveys on Agriculture project, Millennium Challenge Corporation
Study Type: 
Living Standards Measurement Study [hh/lsms]
Series Information: 
The Integrated Household Survey (IHS) is one of the primary instruments implemented by the Government of Malawi through the National Statistical Office (NSO; www.nso.malawi.net) to monitor and evaluate the changing conditions of Malawian households. The IHS data have, among other insights, provided benchmark poverty and vulnerability indicators to foster evidence-based policy formulation and monitor the progress of meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as well as the goals listed as part of the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS). Previous rounds of the IHS program have been implemented every 6-7 years, but starting with the latest round of data collection, the upcoming IHS rounds will be fielded every 3 years as in line with the NSO vision of collecting poverty data on a more frequent basis. The First Integrated Household Survey (IHS1) was implemented with technical assistance from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the World Bank (WB). The IHS1 was conducted in Malawi from November 1997 through October 1998 and provided for a broad set of applications on policy issues regarding households’ behavior and welfare, distribution of income, employment, health and education. The Second Integrated Household Survey (IHS2; http://go.worldbank.org/JABABM36V0) was implemented with technical assistance from the World Bank in order to compare the current situation with the situation in 1997-98, and to collect more detailed information in specific areas. The IHS2 fieldwork took placed from March 2004 through February 2005. The Third Integrated Household Survey (IHS3) expanded on the agricultural content of the IHS2 and was implemented from March 2010 to March 2011 under the umbrella of the World Bank Living Standards Measurement Study – Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) initiative, whose primary objective is to provide financial and technical support to governments in sub-Saharan Africa in the design and implementation of nationally-representative multi-topic panel household surveys with a strong focus on agriculture. A sub-sample of IHS3 sample enumeration areas (EAs) (i.e. 204 EAs out of 768 EAs) was selected prior to the start of the IHS3 field work with the intention to (i) visit a total of 3,246 households in these EAs twice to reduce recall associated with different aspects of agricultural data collection (ii) track and resurvey these households in 2013 in accordance with the IHS3 fieldwork timeline and as part of the Integrated Household Panel Survey 2013 (IHPS). The LSMS-ISA initiative also provided technical and financial assistance to the design and implementation of the IHPS, alongside DFID, Norway and Government of Malawi funding for the exercise. The IHPS main fieldwork took place during the period of April-October 2013, with residual tracking operations in November-December 2013. The Fourth Integrated Household Survey 2016/17 (IHS4) which was implemented in the period of April 2016-April 2017 covering 780 EAs throughout Malawi. As part of this project NSO also implemented the Integrated Household Panel Survey 2016 as a follow up to the IHPS 2013. This panel subsample covered 102 of the 204 baseline IHS3 panel EAs and was conducted during the first half of IHS4 fieldwork. Throughout the design and implementation of the IHS4, the NSO received technical assistance as part LSMS-ISA. The financial support to the IHS4 was provided by Government of Malawi (GoM), WB LSMS-ISA project, and Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC).
Universe: 
Members of the following households are not eligible for inclusion in the survey: • All people who live outside the selected EAs, whether in urban or rural areas. • All residents of dwellings other than private dwellings, such as prisons, hospitals and army barracks. • Members of the Malawian armed forces who reside within a military base. (If such individuals reside in private dwellings off the base, however, they should be included among the households eligible for random selection for the survey.) • Non-Malawian diplomats, diplomatic staff, and members of their households. (However, note that non-Malawian residents who are not diplomats or diplomatic staff and are resident in private dwellings are eligible for inclusion in the survey. The survey is not restricted to Malawian citizens alone.) • Non-Malawian tourists and others on vacation in Malawi.
Primary Investigator Name, Affiliation: 
National Statistical Office (NSO); Ministry of Economic Planning and Development (MoEPD)
Sampling Procedure: 
The IHS4 sampling frame is based on the listing information and cartography from the 2008 Malawi Population and Housing Census (PHC); includes the three major regions of Malawi, namely North, Center and South; and is stratified into rural and urban strata. The urban strata include the four major urban areas: Lilongwe City, Blantyre City, Mzuzu City, and the Municipality of Zomba. All other areas are considered as rural areas, and each of the 27 districts were considered as a separate sub-stratum as part of the main rural stratum. This is the first round of the survey to include the island district of Likoma in the sampling frame. The sampling frame further excludes the population living in institutions, such as hospitals, prisons and military barracks. Hence, the IHS4 strata are composed of 32 districts in Malawi. A stratified two-stage sample design was used for the IHS4. Note: Detailed sample design information is presented in the "Fourth Integrated Household Survey 2016-2017, Basic Information Document" document.
Weighting: 
In order to analyze the data and produce accurate representativeness of the population, the sample variables must be weighted using the household sampling weights provided in each file as hh_wgt. As noted above, the IHS4 data are representative at the national, urban/rural, regional and district-level. The basic weight for each sample household is equal to the inverse of its probability of selection (calculated by multiplying the probabilities at each sampling stage). As indicated in the previous section, the IHS3 sample EAs were selected within each district with PPS from the 2008 PHC frame. At the second stage, 16 sample households were selected with equal probability from the listing for each sample EA. Note: Detailed weighting information is presented in the "Fourth Integrated Household Survey 2016-2017, Basic Information Document" document.
Questionnaires: 
HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE The Household Questionnaire is a multi-topic survey instrument and is near-identical to the content and organization of the IHS3. It encompasses economic activities, demographics, welfare and other sectoral information of households. It covers a wide range of topics, dealing with the dynamics of poverty (consumption, cash and non-cash income, savings, assets, food security, health and education, vulnerability and social protection). Although the IHS4 household questionnaire covers a wide variety of topics in detail it intentionally excludes in-depth information on topics covered in other surveys that are part of the NSO’s statistical plan (such as maternal and child health issues covered at length in the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey). AGRICULTURE QUESTIONNAIRE All IHS4 households that are identified as being involved in agricultural or livestock activities were administered the agriculture questionnaire, which is primarily modelled after the IHS3 counterpart. The modules are expanding on the agricultural content of the IHS3, IHS2, AISS, and other regional agricultural surveys, while remaining consistent with the NACAL topical coverage and methodology. The development of the agriculture questionnaire was done with input from the aforementioned stakeholders who provided input on the household questionnaire as well as outside researchers involved in research and policy discussions pertaining to the Malawian agriculture. The agriculture questionnaire allows, among other things, for extensive agricultural productivity analysis through the diligent estimation of land areas, both owned and cultivated, labor and non-labor input use and expenditures, and production figures for main crops, and livestock. Although one of the major foci of the agriculture data collection effort was to produce smallholder production estimates for major crops, it is also possible to disaggregate the data by gender and main geographical regions. The IHS4 cross-sectional households supply information on the last completed rainy season (2014/2015 or 2015/2016) and the last completed dry season (2015 or 2016) depending on the timing of their interview. FISHERIES QUESTIONNAIRE The design of the IHS4 fishery questionnaire is identical to the questionnaire designed for IHS3. The IHS3 fisheries questionnaire was informed by the design and piloting of a fishery questionnaire by the World Fish Center (WFC), which was supported by the LSMS-ISA project for the purpose of assembling a fishery questionnaire that could be integrated into multi-topic household-surveys. The WFC piloted the draft instrument in November 2009 in the Lower Shire region, and the NSO team considered the revised draft in designing the IHS4 fishery questionnaire. COMMUNITY QUESTIONNAIRE The content of the IHS4 Community Questionnaire follows the content of the IHS3 & IHPS Community Questionnaires. A “community” is defined as the village or urban location surrounding the enumeration area selected for inclusion in the sample and which most residents recognize as being their community. The IHS4 community questionnaire was administered to each community associated with the 780 cross-sectional EAs. Identical to the IHS3 approach, to a group of several knowledgeable residents such as the village headman, the headmaster of the local school, the agricultural field assistant, religious leaders, local merchants, health workers and long-term knowledgeable residents. The instrument gathers information on a range of community characteristics, including religious and ethnic background, physical infrastructure, access to public services, economic activities, communal resource management, organization and governance, investment projects, and local retail price information for essential goods and services.
Data Collector(s) Name: 
National Statistical Office
Supervision: 
IHS4 field based supervisors were responsible for managing the daily operations of their respective field based mobile team. Primary responsibilities included: (1) liaising with IHS4 management on schedules, field operation status, equipment status and needs, and special issues, (2) planning daily field operation schedules including coverage and transportation, (3) liaising with local authorities before commencing interview activities, (3) making Survey Solutions questionnaire assignments on CAPI and syncing completed interviews with their Supervisor account (4) reviewing incoming questionnaires for completion and accuracy, (5) syncing reviewed questionnaires with the Headquarters account, (6) reviewing error reports from Headquarters generated through Stata checking system and assigning questionnaire reviews, and authorizing review/call back based on these reports, (7) administering community questionnaires within each enumeration area.
Data Editing: 
DATA ENTRY PLATFORM To ensure data quality and timely availability of data, the IHS4 was implemented using the World Bank’s Survey Solutions CAPI software. To carry out IHS4, 1 laptop computer and a wireless internet router were assigned to each team supervisor, and each enumerator had an 8–inch GPS-enabled Samsung Galaxy Tab S2 tablet computer. The use of Survey Solutions allowed for the real-time availability of data as the completed data was completed, approved by the Supervisor and synced to the Headquarters server as frequently as possible. While administering the first module of the questionnaire the enumerator(s) also used their tablets to record the GPS coordinates of the dwelling units. In Survey Solutions, Headquarters can then see the location of the dwellings plotted on a map of Malawi to better enable supervision from afar – checking both the number of interviews performed and the fact that the sample households lie within EA boundaries. Geo-referenced household locations from that tablet complemented the GPS measurements taken by the Garmin eTrex 30 handheld devices and these were linked with publically available geospatial databases to enable the inclusion of a number of geospatial variables - extensive measures of distance (i.e. distance to the nearest market), climatology, soil and terrain, and other environmental factors - in the analysis. DATA MANAGEMENT The IHS4 Survey Solutions CAPI based data entry application was designed to stream-line the data collection process from the field. IHS4 Interviews were collected in “sample” mode (assignments generated from headquarters) as opposed to “census” mode (new interviews created by interviewers from a template) for the NSO to have more control over the sample. The range and consistency checks built into the application was informed by the LSMS-ISA experience in IHS3 and IHPS. Prior programming of the data entry application allowed for a wide variety of range and consistency checks to be conducted and reported and potential issues investigated and corrected before closing the assigned enumeration area. Headquarters (NSO management) assigned work to supervisors based on their regions of coverage. Supervisors then made assignments to the enumerators linked to their Supervisor account. The work assignments and syncing of completed interviews took place through a Wi-Fi connection to the IHS4 server. Because the data was available in real time it was monitored closely throughout the entire data collection period and upon receipt of the data at headquarters, data was exported to STATA for other consistency checks, data cleaning, and analysis. DATA CLEANING The data cleaning process was done in several stages over the course of field work and through preliminary analysis. The first stage of data cleaning was conducted in the field by the field based field teams utilizing errors generated with the Survey Solutions application. For questions that flagged an error, enumerators were expected to record a comment within the questionnaire to explain to their Supervisor the reason for the error and confirming that they double checked the response with the respondent. Supervisors were expected to sync the enumerator tablets as frequently as possible to avoid having many questionnaires on the tablet, and to enable daily checks of questionnaires. Some Supervisors preferred to review completed interviews on the tablets so they would review prior to syncing but still record the notes in the Supervisor account and reject questionnaires accordingly. The second stage of data cleaning was also done in the field and this resulted from the additional error reports generated in STATA and sent to teams via email. Field supervisors collected reports for their assignments and in coordination with the enumerators reviewed, investigated, and collected errors. Due to the quick turn-around in error reporting, it was possible to conduct call backs while the team was still operating in the enumeration area when required. Corrections to the data were entered in the rejected questionnaires and sent back to headquarters. Additional cleaning was performed after interviews were “Approved” where appropriate to resolve systematic errors and organize data modules for consistency and efficient use. Case by case cleaning was also performed during the preliminary analysis specifically pertaining to out of range and outlier variables. All cleaning activities were conducted in collaboration with the WB staff providing technical assistance to the NSO in the design and implementation of the IHS4.
Other Processing: 
The 2016-2017 Fourth Integrated Household Survey covered the following topics: HOUSEHOLD - Household and Geographic Area Identification and Survey Information (data of interview, enumerator's and supervisors codes, etc.) - Household Roster - Education - Health - Time Use and Labor - Housing - Food Consumption (over past one week) - Food Security - Non-food Expenditures - over past one week and one month - Non-food Expenditures - over past three months - Non-food Expenditures - over past 12 months - Durable Goods - Farm Implements, Machinery, and Structures - Household Enterprises - Children Living Elsewhere - Other Income - Gifts Given Out - Social Safety Nets - Credit - Subjective Assessment of Well-being - Shocks and Coping Strategies - Child Anthropometry - Deaths in Household AGRICULTURE - Garden Roster (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season) - Plot Roster (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season) - Garden Details (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season) - Plot Details (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season) - Coupon Use (rainy season) - Other Inputs (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season) - Crops (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season) - Seeds (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season) - Sales/ Storage (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season) - Tree/ Permanent Crop Production (last 12 months) - Tree/ Permanent Crop Sales/ Storage (last 12 months) - Livestock - Livestock Products - Access to Extension Services - Network Roster FISHERY - Fisheries Calendar - Fisheries Labor (last high season and last low season) - Fisheries Inputs (last high season and last low season) - Fisheries Output (last high season and last low season) - Fish Trading (last high season and last low season) COMMUNITY - Roster of Informants - Basic Information - Economic Activities - Agriculture - Changes - Community Needs, Actions and Achievements - Communal Resource Management - Communal Organization
Access Authority Name, Affiliation, Email: 

World Bank

Time Periods: 
December, 2017

No Visualizations Available.

Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include: - the Identification of the Primary Investigator - the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation) - the survey reference number - the source and date of download

The Integrated Household Survey is one of the primary instruments implemented by the Government of Malawi through the National Statistical Office (NSO) roughly every 5 years to monitor and evaluate the changing conditions of Malawian households. The IHS data have, among other insights, provided benchmark poverty and vulnerability indicators to foster evidence-based policy formulation and monitor the progress of meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the goals listed as part of the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS) and now the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

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Modified Date
2021-01-14
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467e94e0-3531-4a23-9024-34749c1427cf
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Acronym: 
IHS4 2016/17
Type: 
Languages Supported: 
Access Authority Name, Affiliation, Email: 
World Bank
Disclaimer: 
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Weighting: 
In order to analyze the data and produce accurate representativeness of the population, the sample variables must be weighted using the household sampling weights provided in each file as hh_wgt. As noted above, the IHS4 data are representative at the national, urban/rural, regional and district-level. The basic weight for each sample household is equal to the inverse of its probability of selection (calculated by multiplying the probabilities at each sampling stage). As indicated in the previous section, the IHS3 sample EAs were selected within each district with PPS from the 2008 PHC frame. At the second stage, 16 sample households were selected with equal probability from the listing for each sample EA. Note: Detailed weighting information is presented in the "Fourth Integrated Household Survey 2016-2017, Basic Information Document" document.
Time Periods: 
December, 2017
Supervision: 
IHS4 field based supervisors were responsible for managing the daily operations of their respective field based mobile team. Primary responsibilities included: (1) liaising with IHS4 management on schedules, field operation status, equipment status and needs, and special issues, (2) planning daily field operation schedules including coverage and transportation, (3) liaising with local authorities before commencing interview activities, (3) making Survey Solutions questionnaire assignments on CAPI and syncing completed interviews with their Supervisor account (4) reviewing incoming questionnaires for completion and accuracy, (5) syncing reviewed questionnaires with the Headquarters account, (6) reviewing error reports from Headquarters generated through Stata checking system and assigning questionnaire reviews, and authorizing review/call back based on these reports, (7) administering community questionnaires within each enumeration area.
Economy Coverage: 
Primary Investigator Name, Affiliation: 
National Statistical Office (NSO); Ministry of Economic Planning and Development (MoEPD)
Publisher Name: 
Development Economics Data Group; The World Bank Group
Version Description: 
Version 03
Universe: 
Members of the following households are not eligible for inclusion in the survey: • All people who live outside the selected EAs, whether in urban or rural areas. • All residents of dwellings other than private dwellings, such as prisons, hospitals and army barracks. • Members of the Malawian armed forces who reside within a military base. (If such individuals reside in private dwellings off the base, however, they should be included among the households eligible for random selection for the survey.) • Non-Malawian diplomats, diplomatic staff, and members of their households. (However, note that non-Malawian residents who are not diplomats or diplomatic staff and are resident in private dwellings are eligible for inclusion in the survey. The survey is not restricted to Malawian citizens alone.) • Non-Malawian tourists and others on vacation in Malawi.
Geographical Coverage: 
Data Classification of a Dataset: 
Version Production Date: 
Wednesday, January 13, 2021
Series Information: 
The Integrated Household Survey (IHS) is one of the primary instruments implemented by the Government of Malawi through the National Statistical Office (NSO; www.nso.malawi.net) to monitor and evaluate the changing conditions of Malawian households. The IHS data have, among other insights, provided benchmark poverty and vulnerability indicators to foster evidence-based policy formulation and monitor the progress of meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as well as the goals listed as part of the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS). Previous rounds of the IHS program have been implemented every 6-7 years, but starting with the latest round of data collection, the upcoming IHS rounds will be fielded every 3 years as in line with the NSO vision of collecting poverty data on a more frequent basis. The First Integrated Household Survey (IHS1) was implemented with technical assistance from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the World Bank (WB). The IHS1 was conducted in Malawi from November 1997 through October 1998 and provided for a broad set of applications on policy issues regarding households’ behavior and welfare, distribution of income, employment, health and education. The Second Integrated Household Survey (IHS2; http://go.worldbank.org/JABABM36V0) was implemented with technical assistance from the World Bank in order to compare the current situation with the situation in 1997-98, and to collect more detailed information in specific areas. The IHS2 fieldwork took placed from March 2004 through February 2005. The Third Integrated Household Survey (IHS3) expanded on the agricultural content of the IHS2 and was implemented from March 2010 to March 2011 under the umbrella of the World Bank Living Standards Measurement Study – Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) initiative, whose primary objective is to provide financial and technical support to governments in sub-Saharan Africa in the design and implementation of nationally-representative multi-topic panel household surveys with a strong focus on agriculture. A sub-sample of IHS3 sample enumeration areas (EAs) (i.e. 204 EAs out of 768 EAs) was selected prior to the start of the IHS3 field work with the intention to (i) visit a total of 3,246 households in these EAs twice to reduce recall associated with different aspects of agricultural data collection (ii) track and resurvey these households in 2013 in accordance with the IHS3 fieldwork timeline and as part of the Integrated Household Panel Survey 2013 (IHPS). The LSMS-ISA initiative also provided technical and financial assistance to the design and implementation of the IHPS, alongside DFID, Norway and Government of Malawi funding for the exercise. The IHPS main fieldwork took place during the period of April-October 2013, with residual tracking operations in November-December 2013. The Fourth Integrated Household Survey 2016/17 (IHS4) which was implemented in the period of April 2016-April 2017 covering 780 EAs throughout Malawi. As part of this project NSO also implemented the Integrated Household Panel Survey 2016 as a follow up to the IHPS 2013. This panel subsample covered 102 of the 204 baseline IHS3 panel EAs and was conducted during the first half of IHS4 fieldwork. Throughout the design and implementation of the IHS4, the NSO received technical assistance as part LSMS-ISA. The financial support to the IHS4 was provided by Government of Malawi (GoM), WB LSMS-ISA project, and Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC).
Sampling Procedure: 
The IHS4 sampling frame is based on the listing information and cartography from the 2008 Malawi Population and Housing Census (PHC); includes the three major regions of Malawi, namely North, Center and South; and is stratified into rural and urban strata. The urban strata include the four major urban areas: Lilongwe City, Blantyre City, Mzuzu City, and the Municipality of Zomba. All other areas are considered as rural areas, and each of the 27 districts were considered as a separate sub-stratum as part of the main rural stratum. This is the first round of the survey to include the island district of Likoma in the sampling frame. The sampling frame further excludes the population living in institutions, such as hospitals, prisons and military barracks. Hence, the IHS4 strata are composed of 32 districts in Malawi. A stratified two-stage sample design was used for the IHS4. Note: Detailed sample design information is presented in the "Fourth Integrated Household Survey 2016-2017, Basic Information Document" document.
Release Date: 
Wednesday, November 29, 2017
Last Updated Date: 
Wednesday, January 13, 2021
Questionnaires: 
HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE The Household Questionnaire is a multi-topic survey instrument and is near-identical to the content and organization of the IHS3. It encompasses economic activities, demographics, welfare and other sectoral information of households. It covers a wide range of topics, dealing with the dynamics of poverty (consumption, cash and non-cash income, savings, assets, food security, health and education, vulnerability and social protection). Although the IHS4 household questionnaire covers a wide variety of topics in detail it intentionally excludes in-depth information on topics covered in other surveys that are part of the NSO’s statistical plan (such as maternal and child health issues covered at length in the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey). AGRICULTURE QUESTIONNAIRE All IHS4 households that are identified as being involved in agricultural or livestock activities were administered the agriculture questionnaire, which is primarily modelled after the IHS3 counterpart. The modules are expanding on the agricultural content of the IHS3, IHS2, AISS, and other regional agricultural surveys, while remaining consistent with the NACAL topical coverage and methodology. The development of the agriculture questionnaire was done with input from the aforementioned stakeholders who provided input on the household questionnaire as well as outside researchers involved in research and policy discussions pertaining to the Malawian agriculture. The agriculture questionnaire allows, among other things, for extensive agricultural productivity analysis through the diligent estimation of land areas, both owned and cultivated, labor and non-labor input use and expenditures, and production figures for main crops, and livestock. Although one of the major foci of the agriculture data collection effort was to produce smallholder production estimates for major crops, it is also possible to disaggregate the data by gender and main geographical regions. The IHS4 cross-sectional households supply information on the last completed rainy season (2014/2015 or 2015/2016) and the last completed dry season (2015 or 2016) depending on the timing of their interview. FISHERIES QUESTIONNAIRE The design of the IHS4 fishery questionnaire is identical to the questionnaire designed for IHS3. The IHS3 fisheries questionnaire was informed by the design and piloting of a fishery questionnaire by the World Fish Center (WFC), which was supported by the LSMS-ISA project for the purpose of assembling a fishery questionnaire that could be integrated into multi-topic household-surveys. The WFC piloted the draft instrument in November 2009 in the Lower Shire region, and the NSO team considered the revised draft in designing the IHS4 fishery questionnaire. COMMUNITY QUESTIONNAIRE The content of the IHS4 Community Questionnaire follows the content of the IHS3 & IHPS Community Questionnaires. A “community” is defined as the village or urban location surrounding the enumeration area selected for inclusion in the sample and which most residents recognize as being their community. The IHS4 community questionnaire was administered to each community associated with the 780 cross-sectional EAs. Identical to the IHS3 approach, to a group of several knowledgeable residents such as the village headman, the headmaster of the local school, the agricultural field assistant, religious leaders, local merchants, health workers and long-term knowledgeable residents. The instrument gathers information on a range of community characteristics, including religious and ethnic background, physical infrastructure, access to public services, economic activities, communal resource management, organization and governance, investment projects, and local retail price information for essential goods and services.
Data Editing: 
DATA ENTRY PLATFORM To ensure data quality and timely availability of data, the IHS4 was implemented using the World Bank’s Survey Solutions CAPI software. To carry out IHS4, 1 laptop computer and a wireless internet router were assigned to each team supervisor, and each enumerator had an 8–inch GPS-enabled Samsung Galaxy Tab S2 tablet computer. The use of Survey Solutions allowed for the real-time availability of data as the completed data was completed, approved by the Supervisor and synced to the Headquarters server as frequently as possible. While administering the first module of the questionnaire the enumerator(s) also used their tablets to record the GPS coordinates of the dwelling units. In Survey Solutions, Headquarters can then see the location of the dwellings plotted on a map of Malawi to better enable supervision from afar – checking both the number of interviews performed and the fact that the sample households lie within EA boundaries. Geo-referenced household locations from that tablet complemented the GPS measurements taken by the Garmin eTrex 30 handheld devices and these were linked with publically available geospatial databases to enable the inclusion of a number of geospatial variables - extensive measures of distance (i.e. distance to the nearest market), climatology, soil and terrain, and other environmental factors - in the analysis. DATA MANAGEMENT The IHS4 Survey Solutions CAPI based data entry application was designed to stream-line the data collection process from the field. IHS4 Interviews were collected in “sample” mode (assignments generated from headquarters) as opposed to “census” mode (new interviews created by interviewers from a template) for the NSO to have more control over the sample. The range and consistency checks built into the application was informed by the LSMS-ISA experience in IHS3 and IHPS. Prior programming of the data entry application allowed for a wide variety of range and consistency checks to be conducted and reported and potential issues investigated and corrected before closing the assigned enumeration area. Headquarters (NSO management) assigned work to supervisors based on their regions of coverage. Supervisors then made assignments to the enumerators linked to their Supervisor account. The work assignments and syncing of completed interviews took place through a Wi-Fi connection to the IHS4 server. Because the data was available in real time it was monitored closely throughout the entire data collection period and upon receipt of the data at headquarters, data was exported to STATA for other consistency checks, data cleaning, and analysis. DATA CLEANING The data cleaning process was done in several stages over the course of field work and through preliminary analysis. The first stage of data cleaning was conducted in the field by the field based field teams utilizing errors generated with the Survey Solutions application. For questions that flagged an error, enumerators were expected to record a comment within the questionnaire to explain to their Supervisor the reason for the error and confirming that they double checked the response with the respondent. Supervisors were expected to sync the enumerator tablets as frequently as possible to avoid having many questionnaires on the tablet, and to enable daily checks of questionnaires. Some Supervisors preferred to review completed interviews on the tablets so they would review prior to syncing but still record the notes in the Supervisor account and reject questionnaires accordingly. The second stage of data cleaning was also done in the field and this resulted from the additional error reports generated in STATA and sent to teams via email. Field supervisors collected reports for their assignments and in coordination with the enumerators reviewed, investigated, and collected errors. Due to the quick turn-around in error reporting, it was possible to conduct call backs while the team was still operating in the enumeration area when required. Corrections to the data were entered in the rejected questionnaires and sent back to headquarters. Additional cleaning was performed after interviews were “Approved” where appropriate to resolve systematic errors and organize data modules for consistency and efficient use. Case by case cleaning was also performed during the preliminary analysis specifically pertaining to out of range and outlier variables. All cleaning activities were conducted in collaboration with the WB staff providing technical assistance to the NSO in the design and implementation of the IHS4.
Other Processing: 
The 2016-2017 Fourth Integrated Household Survey covered the following topics: HOUSEHOLD - Household and Geographic Area Identification and Survey Information (data of interview, enumerator's and supervisors codes, etc.) - Household Roster - Education - Health - Time Use and Labor - Housing - Food Consumption (over past one week) - Food Security - Non-food Expenditures - over past one week and one month - Non-food Expenditures - over past three months - Non-food Expenditures - over past 12 months - Durable Goods - Farm Implements, Machinery, and Structures - Household Enterprises - Children Living Elsewhere - Other Income - Gifts Given Out - Social Safety Nets - Credit - Subjective Assessment of Well-being - Shocks and Coping Strategies - Child Anthropometry - Deaths in Household AGRICULTURE - Garden Roster (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season) - Plot Roster (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season) - Garden Details (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season) - Plot Details (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season) - Coupon Use (rainy season) - Other Inputs (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season) - Crops (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season) - Seeds (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season) - Sales/ Storage (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season) - Tree/ Permanent Crop Production (last 12 months) - Tree/ Permanent Crop Sales/ Storage (last 12 months) - Livestock - Livestock Products - Access to Extension Services - Network Roster FISHERY - Fisheries Calendar - Fisheries Labor (last high season and last low season) - Fisheries Inputs (last high season and last low season) - Fisheries Output (last high season and last low season) - Fish Trading (last high season and last low season) COMMUNITY - Roster of Informants - Basic Information - Economic Activities - Agriculture - Changes - Community Needs, Actions and Achievements - Communal Resource Management - Communal Organization
Harvest Source: 
Harvest System ID: 
9663
Version Notes: 
Identical to v02 with updates to AG_MOD_D.dta, AG_MOD_J.dta, AG_MOD_K.dta and AG_MOD_M.dta
Citation Text: 
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include: - the Identification of the Primary Investigator - the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation) - the survey reference number - the source and date of download
Modified date: 
18640
Study Type: 
Living Standards Measurement Study [hh/lsms]
Primary Dataset: 
Yes
Mode of Data Collection: 

Computer Assisted Personal Interview

Data Collector(s) Name: 

National Statistical Office

Funding Name, Abbreviation, Role: 

Government of Malawi, World Bank Living Standards Measurement Study – Integrated Surveys on Agriculture project, Millennium Challenge Corporation

Data Access and Licensing

This dataset is classified as Public under the Access to Information Classification Policy. Users inside and outside the Bank can access this dataset.

This dataset is made available under the World Bank Microdata Research License

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