The Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) was established by the World Bank to explore ways of improving the type and quality of household data collected by statistical offices in developing countries. The goal is to foster increased use of household data as a basis for policy decisionmaking. The Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) was initiated in 1980 as a response to a perceived need for policy relevant data that would allow policy makers to move beyond simply measuring rates of unemployment, poverty and health care use, for example, to understanding the determinants of these observed social sector outcomes. The program is designed to assist policy makers in their efforts to identify how policies could be designed and improved to positively affect outcomes in health, education, economic activities, housing and utilities, etc. This is the first Living Standards Measurement Survey conducted in Kazakhstan.