Honduras - The World Bank Listening to LAC (L2L) Pilot 2012

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The rapid and massive dissemination of mobile phones in the developing world is creating new opportunities for the discipline of survey research. The World Bank is interested in leveraging mobile phone technology as a means of direct communication with poor households in the developing world in order to gather rapid feedback on the impact of economic crises and other events on the economy of such households. The World Bank commissioned Gallup to conduct the Listening to LAC (L2L) pilot program, a research project aimed at testing the feasibility of mobile phone technology as a way of data collection for conducting quick turnaround, self-administered, longitudinal surveys among households in Peru and Honduras. The project used face-to-face interviews as its benchmark, and included Short Message Service (SMS), Interactive Voice Response (IVR) and Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI) as test methods of data collection. The pilot was designed in a way that allowed testing the response rates and the quality of data, while also providing information on the cost of collecting data using mobile phones. Researchers also evaluated if providing incentives affected panel attrition rates. The Honduras design was a test-retest design, which is closely related to the difference-in-difference methodology of experimental evaluation. The random stratified multistage sampling technique was used to select a nationally representative sample of 1,500 households. During the initial face-to-face interviews, researchers gathered information on the socio-economic characteristics of households and recruited participants for follow-up research. Questions wording was the same in all modes of data collection. In Honduras, after the initial face-to-face interviews, respondents were exposed to the remaining three methodologies according to a randomized scheme (three rotations, one methodology per week). Panelists in Honduras were surveyed for four and a half months, starting in February 2012.

Type: 
Microdata
Acronym: 
L2L 2012
Languages Supported: 
English
Topics: 
Topic not specified
Geographical Coverage: 
Honduras
Release Date: 
July 3, 2014

Last Updated

Last Updated: 
July 7, 2014

Harvest System ID

Harvest System ID: 
Microdata

Harvest Source ID

Harvest Source ID: 
6076
Version Description: 
v01
Funding Name, Abbreviation, Role: 
Spanish Trust Fund for Latin America and the Caribbean (trust fund managed by the World Bank); Rapid Social Response (trust fund managed by the World Bank); Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development (trust fund managed by the World Bank); The Brightstar Corporation
Study Type: 
Other Household Survey
Unit of Analysis: 
- Households
Primary Investigator Name, Affiliation: 
World Bank
Sampling Procedure: 
Honduras did not have an income oversample because the poverty rate is 60 percent, so oversampling 20 percent above the poverty rate would include a large portion of the middle class, which are not the most vulnerable in times of crisis. The Honduras panel was built on a nationally representative sample of 1,500 households. The sample was drawn by means of a random, stratified, multistage design. The pilot used Gallup World Poll sampling frame. Census-defined municipalities were classified into five strata according to population size: I. Municipalities with 500,000 to 999,000 inhabitants II. Municipalities with 100,000 to 499,000 inhabitants III. Municipalities with 50,000 to 99,000 inhabitants IV. Municipalities with 10,000 and 49,000 inhabitants V. Municipalities with less than 10,000 inhabitants Interviews were then proportionally allocated to these five strata according to their share among the country's population. - The first stage of the design consisted of a random selection of Primary Sampling Units (PSU's) within each of the five strata previously defined. - In the second stage, in each PSU, one or more Secondary Sampling Units (SSU's) were then selected. - Once SSU's were selected, interviewers were sent to the field to proceed with the third stage of the sample design, which consisted of selecting households using a systematic "random route" procedure. Interviewers started from the previously selected "random origin" and walked around the block in clockwise direction, selecting every third household on their right hand side. They were also trained to handle vacant, nonresponsive, non-cooperative households, as well as other failed attempts, in a systematic manner.
Response Rates: 
In Honduras, 41% of recruited households failed to answer the first round of follow-up surveys. The attrition rate from the initial face-to-face interview to the end of panel study was 50%. As part of the survey administration process Gallup implemented a number of mechanisms to maximize the response rate and panelist retention. The following strategies were applied to respondents who did not replay first time:- The surveys were left open for responses for up to 2 weeks after the original transmission of the survey (from original call in the case of IVR and CATI). - First reminder was sent within 72 hours of first attempt (SMS and IVR). - Second reminder was sent within 144 hours of first attempt (SMS and IVR). - Call backs were made within 72 and 144 hours of first attempt (CATI); or - Up to 2 call backs were made per appointment with respondent (CATI). Also, in order to minimize non-response, three types of incentives were given. First, households that did not own a mobile phone were provided one for free. Approximately 127 phones were donated in Honduras. Second, all communications between the interviewers and the households were free to the respondents. Finally, households were randomly assigned to one of three incentive levels: one-third of households received US$1 in free airtime for each questionnaire they answered, one-third received US$5 in free airtime, and one-third received no financial incentive (the control group).
Questionnaires: 
The following survey instruments were used in the project: 1) Initial face-to-face questionnaire In Peru, the starting point was the ENAHO (National Household Survey) questionnaire. Step-wise regressions were done to select the set of questions that best predicted consumption. For the purposes of robustness, the regressions were also done with questions that best predicted income, which yielded the same results. A similar procedure was done in Honduras, using the latest household survey deployed by the Honduran Statistics Institute, except that only best predictors of income were chosen, because Honduras did not have a recent consumption aggregate. The survey gathered information on households' demographics, household infrastructure, employment, remittances, income, accidents, food security, self-perceptions on poverty, Internet access and cellphones use. 2) Monthly questionnaires (SMS, IVR, CATI) The questionnaires were worded exactly the same way, regardless of the mode, which meant short questions, since SMS is limited to 160 characters. A maximum of 10 questions had to be chosen for the monthly questionnaire. In addition, two questions sought to ensure the validity of the responses by testing if the respondent was a member of the household. Most questions were time-variant and each questionnaire was repeated to observe if answers changed over time. All questions related to variables that strongly affect household welfare and are likely to change in times of crisis. 3) Final face-to-face questionnaire Gallup conducted face-to-face closing surveys among 700 panelists. The researchers asked about issues the respondets had with mobile phones and coverage during the test. Panelists were also asked what would motivate them to keep on participating in a project like this in the future. The questionnaires were worded exactly the same way, regardless of the mode, which meant short questions, since SMS is limited to 160 characters, unlike IVR and CATI.
Time Periods: 
August, 2017

No Visualizations Available.

Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include: - the Identification of the Primary Investigator - the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation) - the survey reference number - the source and date of download Example: World Bank. Honduras the World Bank Listening to LAC (L2L) Pilot 2012. Ref. HND_2012_L2L_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].

The rapid and massive dissemination of mobile phones in the developing world is creating new opportunities for the discipline of survey research. The World Bank is interested in leveraging mobile phone technology as a means of direct communication with poor households in the developing world in order to gather rapid feedback on the impact of economic crises and other events on the economy of such households. The World Bank commissioned Gallup to conduct the Listening to LAC (L2L) pilot program, a research project aimed at testing the feasibility of mobile phone technology as a way of data collection for conducting quick turnaround, self-administered, longitudinal surveys among households in Peru and Honduras. The project used face-to-face interviews as its benchmark, and included Short Message Service (SMS), Interactive Voice Response (IVR) and Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI) as test methods of data collection. The pilot was designed in a way that allowed testing the response rates and the quality of data, while also providing information on the cost of collecting data using mobile phones. Researchers also evaluated if providing incentives affected panel attrition rates. The Honduras design was a test-retest design, which is closely related to the difference-in-difference methodology of experimental evaluation. The random stratified multistage sampling technique was used to select a nationally representative sample of 1,500 households. During the initial face-to-face interviews, researchers gathered information on the socio-economic characteristics of households and recruited participants for follow-up research. Questions wording was the same in all modes of data collection. In Honduras, after the initial face-to-face interviews, respondents were exposed to the remaining three methodologies according to a randomized scheme (three rotations, one methodology per week). Panelists in Honduras were surveyed for four and a half months, starting in February 2012.

FieldValue
Modified Date
2020-04-15
Release Date
Identifier
bf7fbf6c-8435-419c-843e-0a6217da8bfd
License
License Not Specified
Contact Email
Rating: 
0
No votes yet
Acronym: 
L2L 2012
Type: 
Languages Supported: 
Response Rates: 
In Honduras, 41% of recruited households failed to answer the first round of follow-up surveys. The attrition rate from the initial face-to-face interview to the end of panel study was 50%. As part of the survey administration process Gallup implemented a number of mechanisms to maximize the response rate and panelist retention. The following strategies were applied to respondents who did not replay first time:- The surveys were left open for responses for up to 2 weeks after the original transmission of the survey (from original call in the case of IVR and CATI). - First reminder was sent within 72 hours of first attempt (SMS and IVR). - Second reminder was sent within 144 hours of first attempt (SMS and IVR). - Call backs were made within 72 and 144 hours of first attempt (CATI); or - Up to 2 call backs were made per appointment with respondent (CATI). Also, in order to minimize non-response, three types of incentives were given. First, households that did not own a mobile phone were provided one for free. Approximately 127 phones were donated in Honduras. Second, all communications between the interviewers and the households were free to the respondents. Finally, households were randomly assigned to one of three incentive levels: one-third of households received US$1 in free airtime for each questionnaire they answered, one-third received US$5 in free airtime, and one-third received no financial incentive (the control group).
Time Periods: 
August, 2017
Primary Investigator Name, Affiliation: 
World Bank
Funding Name, Abbreviation, Role: 
Spanish Trust Fund for Latin America and the Caribbean (trust fund managed by the World Bank); Rapid Social Response (trust fund managed by the World Bank); Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development (trust fund managed by the World Bank); The Brightstar Corporation
Terms of Use: 
Version Description: 
v01
Unit of Analysis: 
- Households
Geographical Coverage: 
Data Classification of a Dataset: 
Sampling Procedure: 
Honduras did not have an income oversample because the poverty rate is 60 percent, so oversampling 20 percent above the poverty rate would include a large portion of the middle class, which are not the most vulnerable in times of crisis. The Honduras panel was built on a nationally representative sample of 1,500 households. The sample was drawn by means of a random, stratified, multistage design. The pilot used Gallup World Poll sampling frame. Census-defined municipalities were classified into five strata according to population size: I. Municipalities with 500,000 to 999,000 inhabitants II. Municipalities with 100,000 to 499,000 inhabitants III. Municipalities with 50,000 to 99,000 inhabitants IV. Municipalities with 10,000 and 49,000 inhabitants V. Municipalities with less than 10,000 inhabitants Interviews were then proportionally allocated to these five strata according to their share among the country's population. - The first stage of the design consisted of a random selection of Primary Sampling Units (PSU's) within each of the five strata previously defined. - In the second stage, in each PSU, one or more Secondary Sampling Units (SSU's) were then selected. - Once SSU's were selected, interviewers were sent to the field to proceed with the third stage of the sample design, which consisted of selecting households using a systematic "random route" procedure. Interviewers started from the previously selected "random origin" and walked around the block in clockwise direction, selecting every third household on their right hand side. They were also trained to handle vacant, nonresponsive, non-cooperative households, as well as other failed attempts, in a systematic manner.
Release Date: 
Thursday, July 3, 2014
Last Updated Date: 
Monday, July 7, 2014
Questionnaires: 
The following survey instruments were used in the project: 1) Initial face-to-face questionnaire In Peru, the starting point was the ENAHO (National Household Survey) questionnaire. Step-wise regressions were done to select the set of questions that best predicted consumption. For the purposes of robustness, the regressions were also done with questions that best predicted income, which yielded the same results. A similar procedure was done in Honduras, using the latest household survey deployed by the Honduran Statistics Institute, except that only best predictors of income were chosen, because Honduras did not have a recent consumption aggregate. The survey gathered information on households' demographics, household infrastructure, employment, remittances, income, accidents, food security, self-perceptions on poverty, Internet access and cellphones use. 2) Monthly questionnaires (SMS, IVR, CATI) The questionnaires were worded exactly the same way, regardless of the mode, which meant short questions, since SMS is limited to 160 characters. A maximum of 10 questions had to be chosen for the monthly questionnaire. In addition, two questions sought to ensure the validity of the responses by testing if the respondent was a member of the household. Most questions were time-variant and each questionnaire was repeated to observe if answers changed over time. All questions related to variables that strongly affect household welfare and are likely to change in times of crisis. 3) Final face-to-face questionnaire Gallup conducted face-to-face closing surveys among 700 panelists. The researchers asked about issues the respondets had with mobile phones and coverage during the test. Panelists were also asked what would motivate them to keep on participating in a project like this in the future. The questionnaires were worded exactly the same way, regardless of the mode, which meant short questions, since SMS is limited to 160 characters, unlike IVR and CATI.
Harvest Source: 
Harvest System ID: 
6076
Citation Text: 
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include: - the Identification of the Primary Investigator - the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation) - the survey reference number - the source and date of download Example: World Bank. Honduras the World Bank Listening to LAC (L2L) Pilot 2012. Ref. HND_2012_L2L_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
Modified date: 
16258
Study Type: 
Other Household Survey
Primary Dataset: 
Yes
Mode of Data Collection: 

Other

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